R290 Refrigerant

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  • Date:2022/04/08

R290 is a new type of environmentally friendly refrigerant:mainly used in central air conditioners, heat pump air conditioners, household air conditioners and other small refrigeration equipment.

R290, also known as propane, has excellent thermal performance and low price, and R290 is compatible with ordinary lubricating oils and mechanical structural materials, does not require synthesis, does not change the content of natural hydrocarbons, and has no direct impact on the greenhouse effect.This refrigerant fluid is a pure substance with no evaporation slip and high thermodynamic performance, which is only comparable to ammonia (R717) or di Fluoroethane (R152a).


1: Physical properties of R290

Under the condition of 45°C condensation temperature, 32°C suction temperature and no subcooling, the volumetric cooling capacity of R290 is similar to that of R22, and 1.5 times that of R134a. It is 2.5 to 3 times that of R600a, which means that for household refrigerators with the same cooling capacity, the structural size of the refrigeration system of the R290 refrigerator is smaller, and the overall space occupied by the refrigerator is reduced.


2 : Safety performance of R290

The disadvantage of using R290 as a refrigerant is the flammability of R290. The compressor, condenser, evaporator, pipeline and other components of the refrigeration system may cause leakage of the working medium, while the thermostat, compressor relay, lighting, Electronic components such as defrost buttons can be sources of ignition. Install protectors and flame retardant relays on the compressor. Control ventilation to avoid local concentration accumulation, and often use gas sensors to detect areas prone to leaks. The R290 refrigeration system should be closed and strictly checked for leaks before charging with refrigerant.


3: Advantages and disadvantages


Natural, environmentally friendly, and efficient refrigerant: R290 or propane gas is a natural refrigerant with abundant reserves and low cost. In addition, due to its thermodynamic properties and high performance, it has high energy efficiency, which will lead to cost reduction.

Climate adaptability: R290 gas has been proven to be more adaptable to hot climates than HFC.

Their small displacement compressors further improve the efficiency of industrial equipment while also providing high performance in commercial applications.

Wide application range: R290 refrigerant is fully suitable for commercial and industrial equipment and systems.

Good compatibility with other components.



High flammability.

The additional cost of security systems.


4 :Conclusion  

R290 has excellent thermal performance, low price, large cooling capacity per unit volume, small size, and physical properties are very similar to R22, which is a direct substitute. Taking corresponding safety protection measures has a good application prospect for environmental protection and energy saving.


5:R290 Regulations

The current regulations applicable to R290 or propane gas are:

Regulation (EU) No 517/2014 of the European Parliament and Council of April 16, 2014 on fluorinated greenhouse gases. Fluorine containing gas regulations.

European Standard (EU) EN-378:2017, regarding refrigerant charging restrictions for outdoor installations or machine rooms.

On February 4th, Royal Decree No. 138/2011 approved the safety regulations and supplementary technical specifications for refrigeration devices.

Royal Decree No. 1042/2013 of December 27th, approving

Fluorinated greenhouse gas tax regulations.

Law No. 6/2018 of July 3 on the 2018 National General Budget.

Article 85 (Amendment to the Original Regulations).

Royal Decree No. 115/2017 of February 17th. Standardize the sales and processing of fluorinated gases and equipment based on them, as well as the certification of professionals using them, and establish technical requirements for facilities carrying out fluorinated gas emission activities.


6:R290 refrigerant storage and transportation

(1) R290 storage

R290 refrigerant steel cylinders are pressurized containers that should be stored away from sparks, heat sources, and direct sunlight. They are usually stored in a cool, dry, and ventilated warehouse;

R290 should be stored separately from oxidants, combustibles or combustibles, and aluminum, and it is important to remember to store them together.

The storage area should be equipped with leakage emergency response equipment

Pay attention to the product name and acceptance date during acceptance, and prioritize the use of advanced warehouses;


(2) R290 Transportation

When using steel cylinders for transportation, it is necessary to wear a safety helmet on the cylinder. The steel cylinder should be placed horizontally with the bottle mouth facing in the same direction, and should not be stored crosswise

During transportation, it should be handled with care to prevent damage to accessories such as steel cylinders and valves

In summer, transportation should be carried out in the morning and evening to prevent direct sunlight and keep away from heat sources

It is prohibited to slide during railway and highway transportation

It is strictly prohibited to mix with oxidants, flammable or combustible materials, active metals, etc.





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