What is R32?
Difluoromethane is a halogenated hydrocarbon (chemical formula: CH2F2), abbreviated as R32. It is a gas at room temperature, and is a colorless and transparent liquid under its own pressure. It is easily soluble in oil and insoluble in water. It is a coolant with zero ozone loss potential.
R32 is a refrigerant gas commonly used in air conditioning systems. It is a hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) with low global warming potential (GWP) and is considered a more environmentally friendly alternative to old refrigerants such as R22 or R410a.
R32 has good thermodynamic performance, is not flammable, and is safe to use. It is also more energy-efficient than R22 and R410a, which can reduce operating costs and reduce carbon emissions. R32 is increasingly being used in residential, commercial, and industrial air conditioning systems to replace R22 and other old refrigerants.
When the refrigerant enters the evaporator, due to the capillary effect, the pressure decreases and its state changes from liquid to gas. It absorbs the heat from the refrigerator.The low-pressure refrigerant then enters the compressor, where the pressure and temperature increase. The high-pressure and high-temperature refrigerant then enters the condenser.
The condenser consists of a series of pipes through which the hot refrigerant flows. A fan is usually installed next to the condenser tube for forced cooling. Due to the external temperature being lower than the refrigerant temperature, the refrigerant transfers heat to the atmosphere.
The cold high-pressure liquid then enters the evaporator again, where it loses pressure. Then the loop continues.
Advantages and disadvantages
1. Thermophysical properties:
The filling capacity of R32 can be reduced, only 0.71 times that of R410A. The working pressure of R32 system is higher than R410A, but the maximum increase does not exceed 2.6%, which is equivalent to the pressure requirement of R410A system. At the same time, the exhaust temperature of R32 system is up to 35.3 ℃ higher than R410A, and the existing compressor needs to be redesigned
2. Environmental characteristics: ODP values (ozone depletion potential) are all O, but the GWP value (global warming potential) of R32 is moderate, with a CO2 reduction ratio of 77.6% compared to R22, while R410A is only 2.5%, which is significantly better than R410A in CO2 reduction
3. Safety: Both R32 and R410A are non-toxic, while R32 is flammable. However, among several substitutes for R22, R32, R290, R161, and R1234YF, R32 has the highest lower combustion limit (LFL) and is the least flammable, making it relatively safe
4. Cycle performance: In terms of theoretical cycle performance, the refrigeration capacity of the R32 system is 12.6% higher than that of R410A, with an increase in power consumption of 8.1% and a comprehensive energy saving of 4.3%. The experimental results also show that the energy efficiency ratio of the R32 refrigeration system is slightly higher than that of R410A. Therefore, pay more attention to the conventional characteristics and safety regulations of refrigerants, and remember not to use flammable and explosive refrigerants of various models casually. Non professionals should not fill them on their own to avoid harm to their own safety
Although the flammability level of R32 is "below low", it is still flammable under very special conditions, so additional safety precautions need to be considered.
The selection of R32 systems is constantly increasing, but the scope is still limited, and usually R32 air conditioning systems are mainly used in retail units and small offices. However, with the launch of Mitsubishi's R32 Hybrid VRF and other closely following manufacturers, the selection range will soon expand
3.GWP is still not low enough:
As mentioned earlier, the GWP of R32 is much lower, but it is still not considered a long-term solution as the F gas regulations have strict gradual reduction targets until 2030
Differences between R32, R22, and R410A refrigerant gases
Global Warming Potential (GWP): The GWP (657) of R32 is lower than that of R22 (1810) and R410A (2088). Compared to R22 and R410A, the lower GWP of R32 means that it has less impact on the environment.
Energy efficiency: Compared to R22 and R410A, R32 has higher energy efficiency, which means that air conditioning systems using R32 require less energy to operate, thereby reducing power consumption and costs.
Flammability: Compared to R22 and R410A, R32 has lower flammability, making it a safer choice for air conditioning systems.
Toxicity: Compared to R22 and R410A, R32 is considered to have lower toxicity, but caution should still be taken to avoid potential harm to humans and the environment.
Compatibility: R32 is compatible with existing air conditioning systems using R22 and R410A, making it a suitable alternative for retrofitting existing systems. However, before retrofitting to R32, it is important to consider compatibility with specific systems and components.
Pressure: Compared to R22 and R410A, R32 has a lower operating pressure, which can make the components of the air conditioning system smaller and lighter.
Cost: Compared to R22 and R410A, R32 is usually cheaper, making it a more cost-effective choice for air conditioning systems.
Note on storage and transportation of R32 refrigerant
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